Why does a pregnant woman have blood in her urine when she urinates?

Pregnant women undergo laboratory urine tests quite often, so often that many are sincerely perplexed and even indignant at such tediously frequent visits to the antenatal clinic. But such appointments and routine obstetric examinations cannot be ignored, since it is by the results of blood and urine that one can determine the development of complications or any disorders at their very initial stages. Often, such examinations reveal blood in the urine during pregnancy, which can be a dangerous symptom. Although sometimes hematuria has a completely harmless origin. Only a doctor can determine the true reasons. We will tell you in general terms why such a phenomenon is possible, whether it needs to be treated and how dangerous hematuria is.

It is necessary to carry out all necessary checks and analyzes in a timely manner.

Blood in urine: is it dangerous?

If the test results show any abnormalities such as hematuria, then girls tend to get scared, which is quite understandable. You should not interpret the results of laboratory tests yourself; only a specialist can do this correctly. Traces of blood in urine do not always indicate a pathological abnormality; sometimes such a manifestation is due to completely peaceful factors. Urine removes unnecessary, processed substances from the body. Urine also contains various impurities that indicate the functionality of the urinary system, and the body as a whole.

Sometimes the appearance of some components in urine can be quite normal, but with red blood cells the issue is ambiguous. The formation of blood in urine is called hematuria. Often the presence of blood indicates the presence of dangerous diseases or serious abnormalities in the functioning of intraorganic structures. If single bloody spots are detected, microhematuria is diagnosed. In this condition, urine cannot change color, but laboratory diagnostics reveal the presence of red blood cells.

Significant blood impurities indicate gross hematuria, characterized by a change in the traditional shade of urine to a reddish, pink or brown color. But it is impossible to make a diagnosis on your own based only on the shade of urine, since it can change under the influence of completely peaceful factors such as food and medicines. In addition, even the normal color of urine cannot indicate the absence of bloody impurities.

What does it mean if blood is found in the urine?

Pregnancy is accompanied by increased stress on internal organs and body systems. It is during this period that chronic diseases that in normal times have not bothered a woman for a long time often worsen. Thus, the appearance of blood in the urine may indicate inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system. This condition, in turn, poses a threat to the health of the expectant mother and the life of the child. Even minor deviations of the results of urine and blood tests during pregnancy from standard indicators are a reason for immediate consultation with a doctor and further examination.

However, you shouldn’t worry too much in advance. Sometimes a change in the color of urine can be caused by completely safe and even healthy foods, such as beets. But the normal color of urine does not mean that the analysis will not reveal any abnormalities. Often it is stained only in very serious pathologies that are accompanied by dangerous symptoms.

Causes of bloody impurities

As a rule, blood in the urine during pregnancy appears due to a number of physiological transformations that occur after successful conception and are the norm for pregnancy. The uterine body noticeably enlarges and begins to compress the ureteric canals and bladder, which leads to stagnation of urine and poor circulation. Red blood cells leak through the bladder walls and mix with urine. This temporary deviation does not threaten the development of the child, and after delivery it goes away on its own.

The reasons explaining hematuria may be related to changes in hormonal conditions. But in this case, nothing threatens the fetus, and after birth it goes away without any additional treatment. But there are situations when the appearance of bloody impurities during urination is due to pathological reasons.

  • Urolithiasis. Hematuria in this disease is caused by several reasons. Firstly, bloody impurities appear from dead tissue that forms under immobile kidney stones. And secondly, bloody urine occurs due to mucous damage in the urinary structures, which appear during the movement of stones or small stones through them.
  • Inflammation in the urinary system, as well as in the pelvic organs of a pregnant woman. Bacterial pathogens that have penetrated these structures actively trigger vital processes and release toxic elements that destroy mucous tissue. As a result, ulcerative lesions and erosive formations are formed, which will bleed in the future. Hence the bloody impurities in the urine.
  • Bleeding of uterine origin. Bloody discharge flows down the reproductive structures and enters the urine during urination. Such hematuria belongs to the category of the most dangerous gynecological phenomena, because it can appear due to global disorders such as placental abruption or premature birth.
  • Physical overload. When performing physically difficult work against the background of ruptures of small vascular channels in the genitourinary area, similar hematuric phenomena may occur in pregnant women.
  • Tumors. If a neoplasm has formed in the genitourinary structures, then during its growth it can damage the vascular structures, which leads to bloody impurities in the urine.

In addition, hematuria develops in pregnant women against the background of diabetes, anemia or autoimmune pathologies. Among the most common factors of hematuria in pregnant women, experts name cystitis and pyelonephritis, oncopathologies or sexually transmitted diseases, traumatic injuries and lupus, pelvic infections, etc.

Blood in urine in early pregnancy

Blood clots in urine can appear at any stage of pregnancy. If this occurs early, the cause is most likely hormonal imbalance.

Hormones play an important role during pregnancy. If this phenomenon does not threaten health and life, then you don’t even have to worry about it again. Medical practice shows that after childbirth, the inconvenience goes away on its own.

However, there is always a risk of the occurrence and development of pathologies. In addition to the above diseases, the following may occur: lupus, anemia, diabetes, injuries.

Additional signs

Urine mixed with blood fluid is a reason to consult a doctor

The appearance of blood in the urine of pregnant women never occurs independently. If the cause was some hidden pathological factor, then there will be no characteristic manifestations, i.e. the symptom will develop in the form of microhematuria. Although suspicious manifestations will still occur. Usually, against the background of hematuria in any of its manifestations, a woman quickly gets tired, she is worried about weakness and dizziness. Patients have no appetite and may be bothered by sudden changes in blood pressure or temperature.

With hematuric abnormalities, patients are often concerned about painful symptoms in the lumbar region or bladder, which, given the probable causes of the pathology, is considered quite typical. In addition to blood after urination during pregnancy, patients may be bothered by cramps and an incomprehensible burning sensation during the process of emptying the bladder. A woman may lose weight, although she will be eating enough. If the patient experiences similar symptoms, it is necessary to urgently consult an obstetrician-gynecologist and describe in detail the nature of the complaints, when they arose, after which other details appeared.

There is no need to panic right away, because in practice it usually happens that the causes of hematuria are completely peaceful, physiological in nature and can be easily eliminated without harm to the fetus. In the later stages, this phenomenon can be caused by the pressure of the child and the increased size of the uterus, vascular rupture due to excessive intra-abdominal pressure. However, one cannot hope for chance; pathologies are not excluded, which is why there is a possible risk of complications during or after delivery, possible pathologies of the fetus, etc. Therefore, contacting a specialist in such a situation is extremely important.

Traces of blood in urine during pregnancy

Urine with blood is not considered normal, but this does not mean that such a phenomenon is necessarily life-threatening. Doctors call the appearance of blood in the urine hematuria and divide it into two groups: microhematuria (small amount of blood) and macrohematuria (large amount of blood). In the first case, the urine practically does not change, but in the second its color can be varied - from pink to brown.

However, little can be determined by color alone, especially considering that it sometimes changes with food, drink and pills. You should not make a diagnosis yourself ahead of time; it is much wiser to seek help from specialists!

How to detect blood in urine

Since red blood cells in urine can be microhematuric in nature, it is impossible to detect them visually. Therefore, laboratory tests of urine are necessary to confirm this diagnosis. For this purpose, the patient is prescribed a number of diagnostic procedures.

  1. General examination of urine. Such a study helps to identify not only the excessive presence of erythrocyte cells, but also to evaluate the nature of their structural structure. Such activities make it much easier to identify the range of factors that may have caused such a phenomenon. If during the diagnostic process whole red blood cells were discovered, this fact indicates their absence in the renal tubular apparatus, which means that urine was mixed with blood during the emptying of the bladder. Then pathological conditions such as cystitis, urolithiasis, tumor processes in the uterine or vesical body, vaginal inflammation or uterine bleeding of various origins can be probable hematuric factors.
  2. Diagnostics according to Nechiporenko. This procedure produces more accurate and informative results, allowing you to identify the number of red blood cells even in 1 ml of urine. Typically, Nechiporenko’s diagnosis is made after receiving negative tests from a general urine test.
  3. Three-glass urine sample. To conduct the study, the patient divides the morning portion of urine into three parts, i.e., alternately urinates into one container, then excretes the middle portion into the second container, and the remaining portion into the third. This approach to research allows you to accurately calculate the location of the bleeding site. If red blood cells are detected in the first container, this indicates damage to the urethra; if red blood cells are detected in the second portion, renal localization of bleeding is diagnosed, and in the third container, it indicates disturbances in the bladder structures.

In order to avoid unreliable data, it is necessary to collect urine only in sterile containers, indicating the time of collection on it. You should not douche before urinating, and it is better to isolate the vagina from urine with a tampon. The collected biomaterial must be urgently delivered to the laboratory; it cannot be frozen or stored in the refrigerator for a long time. After collection, urine should reach the laboratory no later than 2 hours.

Additionally, to identify the source of bleeding, a gynecological examination with speculum, bacterial culture, ultrasound diagnostics or colposcopy may be necessary. Such procedures will help prevent the penetration of red blood cells from the genital tract.


The pathological process can be prevented by following the rules of prevention:

  1. Protect yourself from infections, viruses, sexually transmitted parasites - use barrier contraception when in contact with an unreliable partner.
  2. Maintain good hygiene.
  3. Take care of the individuality of your linen, towels, and swimwear.
  4. Strengthen the vaginal microflora, increase local immunity, use special creams and gels (Vagilac).
  5. Strengthen the overall immunity of the body - consume vitamin C, harden yourself, take vitamins.
  6. Dress warmly, don't get too cold.
  7. Avoid being in drafts or under air conditioners.
  8. Get enough rest and avoid significant physical overload.
  9. Get enough sleep.
  10. Follow the rules of a healthy diet - ensure that your body receives vitamins, minerals, and microelements.
  11. Avoid spicy, fatty, fried, protein-rich foods.
  12. Stay hydrated - drink enough water at regular intervals.
  13. Follow your diet - eat small portions 5-6 times a day.
  14. Give up bad habits - smoking, drinking alcohol.
  15. Do not put off going to the toilet - holding back urination for a long time is harmful, since bacteria actively multiply in conditions of stagnant urine.
  16. Treat pathological processes of the genitourinary system in a timely manner.
  17. If you have metabolic diseases, a genetic predisposition to the formation of stones, or live in areas with very hard water, periodically perform an ultrasound examination of the kidneys.

The described rules will allow you to maintain excellent health of the genitourinary system.

Treatment methods

Only a specialist can prescribe any therapeutic methods

Treating yourself is a mistake many girls make. In such a situation, you are also responsible for the baby, so self-medication is excluded and unacceptable. Most medications and home remedies are prohibited for pregnant women in this situation, as they can cause miscarriage, premature delivery, complex bleeding and other complications. You should also not rely on the recommendations of a pharmacist from a pharmacy, because he cannot say for sure which drug is needed in your case.

Hematuria is not treated separately, since it is a symptomatic manifestation and its root cause must be eliminated. In general, the therapeutic regimen is determined by the results of the diagnostic measures performed. If renal pathologies are detected, hospitalization with subsequent therapy will most likely be required. If physiological causes are a factor in the bleeding, then no treatment will be needed; specialists usually prescribe a gentle regimen and dietary diet.

If a chronic pathological process is detected, corrective therapy is prescribed with drugs that are safe for the fetus, and preventive measures are taken to prevent exacerbation of the disease.


If blood occurs after urination during pregnancy, safe medications can be used. Treatment should begin only after examination. Self-prescription of drugs negatively affects the development of the fetus. The treatment regimen for hematuria in a woman includes:

  • Hemostatics (Vikasol, Dicynon). Medicines are used in minimal doses. They are not suitable for long-term use.
  • Antispasmodics (Papaverine, Drotaverine). Drugs are prescribed to facilitate the passage of stones due to urolithiasis.
  • Antibiotics (Amoxicillin). Used to eliminate hematuria caused by inflammatory processes in the bladder and urethra.

Important information: Why does sputum with blood come from the throat (nasopharynx) when coughing (expectoration) in the morning and what to do

If the urine color changes to bright red, a woman needs surgical treatment.

Prevention of hematuria

During pregnancy, every patient must understand that now the life of her baby depends on her well-being and health in general, so she must especially monitor her life and avoid all sorts of pathological factors that can provoke any deviations in pregnancy, including hematuria. To exclude the possibility of hematuria, it is necessary to avoid hypothermia, drafts, sitting in the cold, etc. A gentle diet, which has a positive effect on the general course of pregnancy, will not hurt. To do this, you need to give up fatty foods, smoked and salted foods, hot seasonings, and excessively sweet foods.

The main condition for prevention is regular visits to an obstetrician-gynecologist, passing all prescribed tests and hardware diagnostic procedures, monitoring the condition, etc.

Blood in the urine during pregnancy in the 2nd-3rd trimester

As for later periods, the reasons are purely mechanical: weight of the uterus, compression of the urethra and kidneys, impaired blood supply, pressure inside the abdomen, etc.

Hematuria sometimes causes poor labor performance, disturbances in fetal development, premature birth and other complications.

This is why it is so important to get tested and come to the doctor with ready results. If there is any suspicion, he will refer you to a suitable specialist (for example, a nephrologist).

Treatment of pathology

Depending on the identified problem, the patient will be prescribed effective treatment. But at the same time, it is worth understanding that such complex conditions in the expectant mother should be treated strictly in a hospital and there is no need for amateur efforts here. Any self-will can provoke the loss of a baby during the period of intrauterine development. Remember, the rapid recovery of a pregnant woman with renal pathologies is due not only to correctly designed treatment tactics, but also to strict bed rest. In this case, the outflow of urine will be normalized, which will improve the natural washing of the urinary tract. Stay healthy and happy birth!


Making a diagnosis of hematuria becomes possible only by examining urine in a laboratory using the following tests.

General urine analysis

When carrying out such an analysis, it is possible to determine not only the increased content of red blood cells, but also their structure. This will greatly facilitate the search for causes that could provoke bleeding. So, if whole red blood cells were found during the study, this indicates that they were not processed in the renal tubules, which means that the mixing of urine and blood occurred during urination.

Consequently, it becomes possible to suspect the development of diseases such as urolithiasis, cystitis, tumor-like neoplasms of the uterus and bladder, inflammation of the vagina and uterine bleeding of various origins.

To carry out this analysis, you will need an average portion of urine from pregnant women, which should be collected during the first morning urination.

Urinalysis according to Nechiporenko

This is a more accurate laboratory test, thanks to which you can determine the presence of 1 ml red blood cells. urine in quantitative equivalent. Basically, such an analysis is prescribed as an additional study after receiving poor results of the general analysis.

Three-glass urine sample

When collecting material for such an analysis, a woman will have to divide her morning urination into 1, 2 and 3 portions. This is done in order to determine the location of bleeding in the urinary system. If an admixture of red blood cells is noticed in the initial portion, this indicates damage to the urethra.

The appearance of red blood cells in the middle portion indicates renal bleeding or an admixture of blood from the ureters. The third portion with signs of hematuria indicates the development of problems in the bladder.

To ensure that the test results are as reliable as possible, the following rules should be followed when collecting material:

  • The material is collected in a special sterile container, which indicates the date and exact time when the urine was collected.
  • Before collecting urine, it is strictly forbidden to douche and use antiseptics.
  • The vaginal opening should be closed with a sterile tampon.
  • Collected urine should not be heated or frozen.
  • The material for study must be delivered to the laboratory no more than two hours after it was collected.

Also, along with urine tests, gynecology also widely uses such examination methods as examination of the cervix using mirrors, culture, which is taken from the cervix to determine the microflora, colposcopy and ultrasound. All these procedures must be performed in order to prevent bloody discharge from the genitals and their paths into the urine.

In order to eliminate this pathology, it is first necessary to establish the causes of its development, which is impossible to do at home. That is why, if you have the slightest suspicion of blood joining your urine, do not self-medicate, but contact your gynecologist as soon as possible.

How to treat?

If you find clearly visible blood or blood clots in your urine, and you experience abdominal or back pain, nausea or other signs of general malaise, or an elevated body temperature, you should consult a doctor immediately, without waiting for the date of your scheduled examination.

Under no circumstances should you even try to eliminate blood in the urine on your own, following the advice of experienced girlfriends or wise grandmothers, using any tablets or herbs. Prescriptions should only be made by a doctor, and it is quite possible that your gynecologist will refer you to a nephrologist or internist. Hematuria is a symptom, not a disease, and to eliminate it, the disease itself must be treated.

If tests show that blood in the urine during pregnancy is a consequence of hormonal changes or other natural physiological changes in the body, such hematuria does not need to be treated; after childbirth it disappears on its own.

During pregnancy, women's bodies are subjected to severe stress and changes. The rapid and intensive development of the embryo and physiological processes are characterized by a variable course. Because of this, red blood cells often appear in the urine during pregnancy. Depending on the severity of symptoms, the following types of hematuria are distinguished:
  • microhematuria;
  • macrohematuria.

Microhematuria is detected by microscopy of urine sediment using a laboratory method. Visually, the urine retains its color. With gross hematuria, blood impurities and red blood cells in the urine are determined visually during pregnancy. This phenomenon is always calculated by doctors as a sign of pathology. The main sources of blood for gross hematuria are:

  • bladder;
  • urethra;
  • kidneys

False hematuria

This type of disorder is said to occur when the appearance of red blood cells in the urine is due to reasons not related to kidney disorders and diseases. At the same time, the level of red blood cells in urine remains within normal limits. Substances other than blood cells give it its red color. Often, urine may become pink or reddish due to certain medications or foods. For example, a beet salad eaten the day before can give the urine a corresponding color.

True hematuria

True hematuria is said to occur when there is a high level of red blood cells in the urine. With this variant of the disease, blood cells undergo certain processing in the kidney tubules, after which they are mixed with urine and released. To determine the exact cause, doctors prescribe a comprehensive examination of the patient. True hematuria is always associated with pathology of the urinary system.

Treatment of pregnant women involves the prescription of medications that will not harm the child or the harm will be minimal. For inflammation as a result of cystitis or pyelonephritis, antibiotics Ceftriaxone, Norfloxacin, as well as drugs that help improve urine outflow are prescribed. Vaginitis is treated using antiseptic solutions.

For urolithiasis, therapy is aimed at crushing or removing stones. If bleeding occurs due to injury, then hemostatic medications are used. Blood in the urine does not require treatment for physiological conditions. But you should constantly see a doctor for timely diagnosis of diseases.

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